Relevance of the Research

There is little information on interactions between large-scale renewable energy projects with local populations in the study areas due to the fact that these larger-scale projects have only just begun to be developed. The benefits and costs of the larger-scale projects for women are unknown. There is also a lack of information on current small-scale, decentralized use of renewable energy technologies and the effects of these on urban, peri-urban and rural women’s lives and livelihoods. The lack of information hinders the possibility of designing technologies that respond to the energy needs of women.

More content about the Arizona side of the project coming soon.

Arizona: General Characteristics

Arizona is located in the southwestern quadrant of the conterminous states. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Arizona is among the fastest growing states. Its estimated 2018 population is 7,123,898 up from 6,828,065, the official estimate of the 2015 population.  About half of Arizona is semiarid, one-third is arid, and the remainder is humid. Moisture-laden air from the Gulf of California and the eastern Pacific Ocean appears in July, bringing more than two months of irregular but sometimes heavy thundershowers that are part of the North American monsoon. Tucson receives about 11.8 inches (299.7 mm) of rain annually; in the monsoons an average of 3 inches of rainfall falls through the summer months. Winter rains come from the Pacific. There is a variety of altitudes and climate throughout the state thus it is not surprising to find similar diversity in the state’s vegetation. About one-tenth of Arizona is forested, one-fourth is woodland, one-fourth is grassland, and the rest is desert shrub.


Between 1880 and 1950 the production of copper remained by far the most important industry in Arizona. Arizona is still the leading copper-producing state in the country, but manufacturing has grown to become the state’s most important basic industry, notably in electronics, communications, aeronautics, and aluminum.  


Agriculture in Arizona has included mainly the production of cotton, citrus, fodder and cattle although their contribution to the state’s economy has been declining due in part to urbanization and lower overall rainfall and more rainfall variability in addition to record high temperatures in recent years.  The year 2017 was the hottest on record for the two largest cities in Arizona, Tucson and Phoenix.  Arizona has the highest proportion of female to male farmers out of all the U.S. states.  In 2012, women constituted 45 percent of all farmers within the state, not including the vast majority of urban farmers not accounted for.


In terms of large scale projects, the state’s renewable energy is concentrated in the transmission of electricity across state lines. Renewable energy development projects will generate power from Wyoming to population centers in the desert southwest, including Nevada, Arizona, and Southern California and additional proposed transmission projects would connect areas of southeastern California and New Mexico to southwestern Arizona. Some of the power for cities in Arizona is now being generated within the state.